Adventures in terminal emulators
One of my common tinkering projects has been writing terminal emulators, programs that do the work of e.g. xterm. There are a lot of interesting ideas in this space (I have my own to contribute!) but discussing them is a post for another day. Instead I thought I'd write a bit about the basics.
It turns out that writing a basic featureless terminal emulator is a nice way to try out a programming language because it touches on a few different things:
- The terminal emulation itself is a relatively simple self-contained parsing problem, which lets you exercise the nuts and bots of the language.
- To render the output you need some sort of keyboard input and graphical output, which lets you exercise the language's GUI libraries and how/whether it interacts with an event loop.
- It also touches some grungy Unix bits (ptys, ioctls), which give you a taste of the language's support for extension; most languages reasonably don't build pty handling into their standard library.
Perhaps because of this I've written experiments in C++, Haskell, Go, Rust, and likely some other languages that I've forgotten about. When I tell people about my terminal emulators most think it's a dumb idea and some say it might be hard, but the basics are really pretty simple.
Your terminal emulator program runs another command (say,
bash) as a
subprocess. When that subcommand produces output you mostly just add it
to the screen at the current position, perhaps representing the screen
as a 2d grid of character cells, and the current cursor position as
Some of the subcommand's output also includes control codes, which are
sequences of characters that change something; for example, if you see
\e here represents ESC, which is a byte
value of 27) that means subsequent text should be blue. Other escape
codes move the cursor, and so on. You can find charts of all the escape
Processing these escapes is the parsing problem I mentioned above. This
is straightforward until you encounter the problem of partial
escapes. The subprocess is producing text — perhaps coming in slowly,
if your terminal is ssh'd over some slow connection, or perhaps quite
fast, if your terminal is running
find / locally — and your code must
interpret them. That is, what do you do if you get the first few bytes
of an escape code but not the rest? (UTF-8 input, with multiple bytes
representing a single codepoint, is an identical problem.)
One option is to make the parser asynchronous: model the whole thing as a state machine that can be resumed at any point, so when you run out of input, bail, and then when you later get more input, pick up where you left off. This is pretty tedious and error-prone and the sort of thing that it feels like a language ought to help you with.
Another option is to synchronously wait for more data. However, in the context of a GUI you can't synchronously wait from the UI handling thread, so this gives you a chance to try out your test language's threads or coroutines (or goroutines). The background thread waits for the subprocess output and processes it as it arrives.
But now you have a synchronization issue: the UI wants to draw the terminal content so it needs access to the layout and position, while the terminal emulation parser wants to update that state at the same time. If you just put a lock around it — read one command, then update state while holding the lock — you end up spending most of your time in locking (the vast majority of "commands" are just single bytes that are displayed as-is). Similar approaches (e.g. sending parsed terminal commands as they complete over a Go channel) also create tons of overhead (memory allocations and channel processing per input byte).
Aside: why even care about overhead? I dunno, this is just tinkering. The test case to run is
time find /in an xterm; you'll see that it's limited by the terminal and X server CPU. In my good implementations I instead have the terminal emulator process the output as fast as possible, but the render of that output is locked to the compositor resync (so drawing happens only once every 16ms ~ 60fps).
My newest idea is a kind of hybrid: read to fill a buffer, lock once, parse as much from that as possible, and finally back up and save the tail to use after the next read if you hit the end of the buffer while in the middle of parsing an escape code.
This approach is potentially O(n^2) if an incomplete input comes a byte at a time, because each time around the outer loop we start over from the beginning; but in practice escape codes are ~10 bytes at most and the very worst (the one that sets the window title) is more like ~100 bytes.
The other problem with this approach is that it mostly defeats the paralellism benefit of the concurrent design. The terminal processing code holds the lock the entire time it's doing its processing, then releases it when it goes back to sleep to wait for more input, while the paint code must wait for the lock when it wants to paint. There are two threads but they mostly take turns. Perhaps you have a better idea?
If you wanted to write your own terminal emulator there are some other
details, like ptys (see
man pty) and the window size (
but they're easy enough to muddle through. Hopefully in future posts I
will be able to show you something cool.